Open Access
Original Article

Table I

Summary of the literature review.

Authors Date Country Study Results
Satoh et al. [13] 2015 Finland Study of a case of bradycardia after local infiltration under GA of 5 mL of Lidocaine diluted at 1/100 000 adrenaline for wisdom tooth avulsion. A too fast injection is more than enough sufficient to change the heart rate.
Townsend et al. [8] 2014 USA Survey on LA usage for dental rehab under GA toward members of American Society of Dentist Anaesthesiologists. LA with GA allows a stabilization of vital signs and a reduction in the depth of GA and a better post-operative recovery.
Chatellier et al. [12] 2012 France Study on the contribution of bilateral lower alveolar block (BIANB) in patients before mandibular sagittal osteotomy for the treatment of post-operative pain, nausea and vomiting. There were 16 “AG + BIANB” patients and 14 patients in control group. Post-operative nausea and vomiting were significantly less frequent in the “AG + BIANB” group. And post-operative pain was significantly lower.
Espitalier et al. [11] 2010 France Study of mandibular nerve block (MNB) in sagittal split osteotomy of the mandibular. 38 osteotomies were therefore analysed in MNB group and control group. The study focuses the effect of MNB on intraoperative bleeding. MNBs improve intraoperative and post-operative analgesia during sagittal split mandibular osteotomy under general anaesthesia, but also decrease bleeding, and so improve surgical visibility.
Watts et al. [9] 2009 USA The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of intraoperative local anaesthetics in paediatric outpatient dental surgery. 48 children were included (mean age = 3.87 yr [±1.06 SD]). Two groups were studied: “GA only” versus “GA+LA”. Patients who did not get LA per-operatively were more susceptible of having fluctuations in their vital signs, therefore needing adjustments to the anaesthesia protocols.
Townsend et al. [6] 2009 USA Randomized study to evaluate the effects of the combination of LA and NSAID versus NSAID alone on quality of recovery following dental rehabilitation under GA. 12 children (mean age = 4.05 yr [±0.73 SD]) were included. No incidence in post-op pain management.
        But more risk of post-op biting under the LA + NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) protocol.
Ginström et al. [10] 2005 Finland Post-operative pain assessment case control study. “Tonsillectomy + LA + AG” versus “tonsillectomy + AG” only. 64 adults were included. Tonsillar infiltration with bupivacaine and epinephrine decreased the intensity of post-operative pain, intraoperative bleeding and surgical time after tonsillectomy.
Bourgain et al. [27] 2004 France Article revue on anaesthesia use in stomatology and maxillo-facial surgery. LA after dental surgery can induce labial and deglutition incontinence. The short time LA action of the infiltration needs later on an analgesic relay prescription. LA is a preventive analgesia.
Al-Bahlani et al. [7] 2001 Scotland Comparative study focusing on haemostasis. 100 children (aged 3–5 yr) were operated under GA for temporary tooth avulsions with or without LA. LA allows us to reduce significantly blood loss. But it is associated significantly with a greater post-operatively vital signs distress.

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