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Table 2

Summary of literature case reports: Demographic, clinical and histopathological findings, pathology diagnosis of premalignant melanocytic lesion and time to onset of oral malignant melanoma.

Author/year Age/race/sexe Location of pre-malignant lesion Size (cm) Clinical findings Histological findings Diagnosis of the pre-malignant lesion Time to diagnosis of OMM Reasons for consultation
Rapini [12]; 1985 9 years/black/F Lips NP NP NP NP 20 years Enlarging/pain
Rapini [12]; 1985 46 years/white/M Palate NP NP NP NP 6 years Enlarging
Taylor [13]; 1990 22 years/white/M Mandibular gingiva 0.5 Pigmented lesion Squamous epithelium with anastomosing and elongated rete ridges and “abundant pigmentation in the basilar” and scattered melanophages in the stroma Benign gingival melanosis 5 years Enlarging/ulceration
Umeda [14]; 2002 58 years/Asian/F Palate NP Pigmented macule Lentiginous proliferation of dendritic melanocytes and melanin products. Melanocytes formed small nests in the tip of rete ridges Melanocytic dysplasia 3 years Follow up visits
Kahn [15];2005 38 years/white/F Palate 1.2 Elongated bluish-black macule with an irregular brown periphery 1: Normal mucosa except “for increased melanin pigmentation in the basal layer”
2: Intense pigmentation and “large number of melanocytes” in the basal cell layer with “clear cell (melanocytic) proliferation”
3: HMB-45 was positive
4: NP (postirradiation change of salivary ductal epithelium)
6: Increased numbers of pigmented melanocytes at the dermalepidermal junction with prominent dendritic melanocytes
1: Oral melanotic macule
2: Oral melanotic macule
3: Pigmented epithelial hyperplasia
4: Atypical melanocytic hyperplasia
5: Atypical melanocytic hyperplasia + malignant
melanoma in situ
6: Labial lentigo = hyperpigmented melanotic macule
7: Carcinoma in situ with focal areas of superficial invasion and melanocytic colonization + severe melanocytic dysplasia
8: Melanoacanthoma
9: Atypical melanocytic hyperplasia
10: Melanocytic hyperplasia with focal dendritic melanocytes
7 years and 8 months Increasing in size
Kaehler [16]; 2008 57 years/NP/M Tongue 2.0 × 5.0 Bluish brown melanosis Pronounced “basal hyperpigmentation” without elongation of rete ridges Oral melanosis 9 years Enlarging
Meleti [17]; 2010 50 years/NP/M Palate 1.5 Irregularly shaped flat, nonuniformly pigmented (predominantly brown-black), surrounded by minor brownish pigmentations Limited amount of melanin pigment in the basal layer of epithelium and in the connective tissue.
Mild signs of melanocytic atypia.
In the underlying salivary glands, several pigmented epithelial cells in the interlobular and excretory ductal cells.
Possible neoplastic melanocytic proliferation with atypia and variable expression of melanin extending into the underlying salivary glands 4 years Follow up visits
Shen [6];2011 60 years/Asian/F Palate NP NP NP Oral melanotic macule 1 month NP
Patel [3];2017 41 years/Asian/M Maxillary gingiva 0.75 Bluish-black with slight variegation Melanocytic hyperplasia with atypical melanocytes Pre-malignant melanosis 12 years and 8 months Bleeding and soreness
Patel [3];2017 62 years/Asian/F Maxillary gingiva 4.25 Bluish-black with color variation and an irregular border Melanocytic hyperplasia with dendritic melanocytes migrating into spinous cell layer Oral melanoacanthoma 11 months Reappearance and a salty taste associated with areas of the lesion
Our case report 22 years/Maghreb/F Palate 4 Brown-black melanosis Basal hyperpigmentation without any atypical melanocyte Oral melanosis 15 years Enlarging/ulceration

Note: OMM: oral malignant melanoma; NP: not precised.

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