Open Access
Original Research Article
J Oral Med Oral Surg
Volume 28, Number 2, 2022
Article Number 15
Number of page(s) 6
Published online 08 April 2022
  1. WHO. Global data on incidence of oral cancer. Available at Accessed on 22/12/2020. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ramoa C.P., Eissenberg T., Sahingur S.E. Increasing Popularity of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Oral Health Care. J Periodontal Res 2017;52:813–823. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. Palakurthy P., Kulkarni, P.G., Nandan, R.K., Rao, T.M., Reddy, DSP, Muddana, K. Cytological changes in normal oral mucosa of individuals with tobacco habits: a cytomorphometric study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18:722–727. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Ramaesh T., Mendis B.R., Ratnatunga N., Thattil R.O. The effect of tobacco smoking and of betel chewing with tobacco on the buccal mucosa: a cytomorphometric analysis. J Oral Pathol Med 1999;28:385–388. [Google Scholar]
  5. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific Nnitrosamines. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2007;89:1–592 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. Münzel T., Hahad O., Kuntic M., Keaney J.F., Deanfield J., Daiber, A. Effects of tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and waterpipe smoking on endothelial function and clinical outcomes. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4057–4070. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Aslam H.M., Saleem S., German S., Qureshi W.A. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review. Int Arch Med 2014;4:7:16. [Google Scholar]
  8. Centre for Disease Control. Hookahs. Available at Accessed on 3/3/2021. [Google Scholar]
  9. Cobb C., Ward K.D., Maziak W., Shihadeh A.L., Eissenberg, T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States. Am J Health Behavior 2010;34:275–285 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Eissenberg T., Shihadeh, A. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure. Am J Prev Med 2009;37:518–523. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Shihadeh A., Saleh, R. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,”tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43: 655–661. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  12. Al Rashidi M., Shihadeh, A., Saliba, N.A. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3546–3549. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  13. Prasad P., Hamed M.S., Nahar, P. Oral health effects in Shisha smokers – a study among Arabs and Indians in UAE. SaudiJ Oral Dent Res 2019;3:207–212. [Google Scholar]
  14. Natto S., Baljoon M., Bergström, J. Tobacco smoking and periodontal health in a Saudi Arabian population. J Periodontol 2005;76:1919–1926. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Greene J.C., Vermillion, J.R. The simplified oral hygiene index. J Am Dent Assoc 1964;68:7–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Löe H. The gingival index, the plaque index and the retention index systems. J Periodontol 1967;38:610–616. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Klein H. Studies on dental caries: V. Familial resemblance in the caries experience of siblings. Public Health Rep 1938;53:1353–1364. [Google Scholar]
  18. Papanicolaou G.N., Traut, H.F. Cancer cells in vaginal smears. Anat Rec 1942;82:488. [Google Scholar]
  19. Kabiraj, A., Khaitan, T., Bhowmick, D., Ginjupally, U., Bir, A., Chatterjee, K. Screening of oral potentially malignant disorders using exfoliative cytology: a diagnostic modality. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; Article ID 8134832, 4 pages, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  20. Diniz F.M., Garcia G.A., Crespo A.A., Martins CJL, Gandara, RJM. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer. Med Oral 2004;9:355–361. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  21. Khemiss M., Ben Khelifa M., Ben Rejeb M., Ben Saad, H. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers. Libyan J Med 2016;11:31689. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  22. Natto, S., Baljoon, M., Abanmy, A., Bergstrom, J. Tobacco smoking and gingival health in a Saudi Arabia n population. Oral Health Prev Dent 2004;2:351–357 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. Bibars A.R., Obeidat S.R., Khader Y., Mahasneh A.M., Khabour O.F. The effect of waterpipe smoking on periodontal health. Oral Health Prev Dent 2015;13:253–259. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Javed F., Al-Kheraif A.A., Rahman I., et al. Comparison of clinical and radiographic periodontal status between habitual water-pipe smokers and cigarette smokers. J Periodontol 2016;87: 142 147 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. Warnakulasuriya S. Waterpipe smoking, oral cancer and other oral health effects. Evid Based Dent 2011;12:44–45. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  26. Sahib A.M., Radhi, N.J. Salivary constituent in relation to dental caries among coffee-shop workers in Najaf City/Iraq. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2018;7:86–92. [Google Scholar]
  27. Seifi S., Feizi F., Mehdizadeh M., Khafri S., Ahmadi, B. Evaluation of cytological alterations of oral mucosa in smokers and waterpipe users. Cell J 2014;15:302–329. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. Rajabi-Moghaddam M., Haji Mirzamohammad M., Yahyazadeh E., Gholinia H., Abbaszadeh, H. Comparison of genotoxic effect in buccal exfoliated cells between cigarette and waterpipe smokers. Acta Cytolog 2020;64:471–476. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. El-Setouhy M., Loffredo C.A., Radwan G., Abdel Rahman R., Mahfouz E., Israel E., Mohamed M.K., Ayyad S.B. Genotoxic effects of waterpipe smoking on the buccal mucosa cells. Mutat Resw 2008;655:36–40. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Orellana-Bustos, Aiz, Ortega-Pinto, A.V. Evaluation of keratinization and AgNORs count in exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa from smokers and non-smokers. Med Oral 2004;9: 197–203. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  31. Ahmed H.G., Ebnoof S.O., Hussein M.O., Gbreel A.Y. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques. Diagn Cytopathol 2010;38:489–495. [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.