Adaptation of the bystander effect cognitive model  to the medical diagnostic process.
|Bystander effect||Medical equivalent|
|1. Notice that something is going on.||1. Detect the clinical anomaly.|
|2. Interpret the situation as being an emergency.||2. Determine that this anomaly needs treatment.|
|3. Estimate the degree of responsibility.||3. Estimate your personal level of expertise on the subject.|
|4. Determine the best form of assistance.||4. Decide to treat or to refer to a specialist.|
|5. Implement the action choice.||5. Treat or refer (specifically to one specialist).|
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