Open Access

Table I

Adaptation of the bystander effect cognitive model [10] to the medical diagnostic process.

Bystander effect Medical equivalent
1. Notice that something is going on. 1. Detect the clinical anomaly.
2. Interpret the situation as being an emergency. 2. Determine that this anomaly needs treatment.
3. Estimate the degree of responsibility. 3. Estimate your personal level of expertise on the subject.
4. Determine the best form of assistance. 4. Decide to treat or to refer to a specialist.
5. Implement the action choice. 5. Treat or refer (specifically to one specialist).

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