Open Access

Table II

The 2017 international classification of EDS (Malfait et al., 2017 [2]). AD: autosomal dominant; AR: autosomal recessive.

Dysfunction/Type of EDS Major clinical manifestations Genetic mutation Heredity Frequency OMIM
A - Collagen structure defect
Classic type Hyperextensibility of the skin
Atrophic scars
Joint hypermobility
COL5A1/2 AD 1–9 per 100,000 130000
Vascular type Thin and translucent skin
Fragility or rupturing of the arteries, intestines or uterus
Characteristic aspect of the face
COL3A1 AD 1–9 per 100,000 130050
Cardiovascular type Severe cardiovascular dysfunction
Hyperlaxity of the skin
Joint hypermobility
AR <1 per 1,000,000 225320
Arthoclastic type Severe joint hypermobility with frequent subluxations
Congenital bilateral hip dislocation
COL1A1/2 AD <1 per 1,000,000 130060
Dermatosparaxis Extreme skin fragility
Hyperlaxity of the skin
Bruising of the skin
ADAMTS2 AR <1 per 1,000,000 225410
B - Failure of folding and crosslinking of collagen
Kyphoscoliotic type Loose joints
Congenital severe muscular hypotonia
Congenital scoliosis
Fragility of the sclera
Rupturing of the eyeball
AR Unknown 225400
C - Fault in the structure and function of the myomatrix
Pseudo-classical types Hyperlaxity of the skin
Joint hypermobility
Cutaneous hemorrhagic manifestations
TNXB AR <1 per 1,000,000 606408
Myopathic type Congenital hypotonia
Proximal articular malpositions
Distal articular hyperlaxity
COL12A1 AR/AD <1 per 1,000,000 616471
D - Glycoaminoglycan biosynthesis deficiency
Musculocontractural type Congenital malpositions
Craniofacial anomalies
Skin abnormalities (hyperlaxity, fragility, spontaneous bruising)
CHST14/DSE AR <1/1,000,000 601776/615539
Spondylodysplastic type Delays in growth
Joint malpositions
AR <1/1,000,000 130070/615349
E - Faults in the complement path
Periodontal type Aggressive Periodontitis
Lack of attached gums
Pre-tibial functions
Family history, first degree
C1R AD Unknown 130080
F - Intracellular process defects
Spondylocheirodysplastic type Delays in growth
Joint malpositions
AR <1/1,000,000 612350
Fragile cornea syndrome Corneal fragility
Early keratoconus or keratoglobus
Bluish Sclera
AR <1/1,000,000 229200
G - Unresolved EDS Forms
Hypermobile type Hyperextensibility of the skin
Generalized joint hypermobility
Chronic arthritis
Unknown AD 1–5/10,000 130020

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