Open Access
Issue
Med Buccale Chir Buccale
Volume 18, Number 2, avril 2012
Page(s) 129 - 141
Section Mise au point / Literature review
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/mbcb/2012013
Published online 23 April 2012
  1. Jainkittivong A,Langlais RP. Buccal and palatal exostoses: prevalence and concurrence with tori. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Endod 2000;90:48-53. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Antoniades DZ,Belazi M,Papanayiotou P. Concurrence of torus palatinus with palatal and buccal exostoses: case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho Oral Radiol Endod 1988;5:552-7. [Google Scholar]
  3. Gorsky M,Bukai A,Shohat M. Genetic influence on the prevalence of torus palatinus. Am J Med Gen 1998;75:138-40. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Filho EN,Seixas MT,Mazzoni A,Weckx LLM. Multiple exophytic osteomas of craniofacial bones not associated with Gardner’s syndrome: a case report. Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol 2004;70:836-9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Sawyer DR,Taiwo EO,Mosadoi A. Oral anomalies in Nigerian children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1984;12:269-73. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hiss J,Taddei C,Wolfram-Gagel R,Feki A. Le torus palatin. Etude réalisée sur 723 crânes humains et comparaison avec les données de la littérature. Med Buccale Chir Buccale 2005;11:205-13. [Google Scholar]
  7. Dorrance GM. Torus palatinus. Dent Cosmos 1929;71:275-85. [Google Scholar]
  8. Briday L. Le torus palatin. Étude clinique pathologique. Application à une population mérovingienne. Thèse Chirurgie dentaire, Lyon, 1995. [Google Scholar]
  9. Woo JK. Torus palatinus. Am J Phys Anthropol 1950;10:81-106. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Bernaba JM. Morphology and incidence of torus palatinus and mandibularis in Brazilian Indians. J Dent Res 1977;56:499-501. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Martin-Duverneuil N,Sahli-Amor M,Chiras J. Imagerie tumorale odontogénique des maxillaires. J Radiol 2009;90:649-60. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  12. Hooton EA. On certain Eskimoid characters in Icelandic skulls. Am J Phys Anthropol 1918;1:53-76. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Lasker GW. Torus palatinus (an historical note). Dent Rec 1952;72:269-73. [Google Scholar]
  14. Matthews GP. Mandibular and palatine tori and their etiology. J Dent Res 1933;13:245 (abstract). [Google Scholar]
  15. Thoma KH. Torus palatinus. Int J Orthod Oral Surg 1937;23:194-202. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Krahl VE. A familial study of the palatine and mandibular tori. Anat Rec 1949;103:477(abstract). [Google Scholar]
  17. Al Quran FAM,Al-Dwairi ZN. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in edentulous patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006;7:112-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. Dossios O. Contribution à l'étude des exostoses des maxillaires, revue de la littérature, présentation de cas cliniques. Thèse Chirurgie dentaire, Nice, 1995. [Google Scholar]
  19. Eggen S,Natvig B. Relationship between torus mandibularis and number of present teeth. Scand J Dent Res 1986;94:233-40. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  20. Eggen S. Torus mandibularis: an estimation of the degree of genetic determination. Acta Odontol Scand 1989;47:409-15. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  21. Eggen S. Correlated characteristics of the jaws: association between torus mandibularis and marginal alveolar bone height. Acta Odontol Scand 1992;50:1-6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  22. Gorsky N,Raviv M,Kfir E,Moskona D. Prevalence of torus palatinus in a population of young and adult Israelis. Arch Oral Biol 1996;41:623-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ruprecht A,Hellstein J,Bobinet KMattinson C. The prevalence of radiographically evident mandibular tori in the University of Iowa dental patients. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2000;29:291-6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Sawair FA,Shayyab MH,Al-Rababah MA. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of tori and jaw exostoses in a teaching hospital in Jordan. Saudi Med J 2009;30:1557-62. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. Shah DS,Sanghavi SJ,Chawda JD,Shah RM. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in 1000 patients. Ind J Dent Res 1992;3:107-10. [Google Scholar]
  26. Sonnier KE,Horning GM,Cohen ME. Palatal tubercles, palatal tori and mandibular tori: prevalence and anatomical features in a U.S. population. J Periodontol 1999;70:329-36. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Summers CJ. Prevalence of tori. J Oral Surg 1968;26:718-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. Kolas S,Halperin V,Jefferis K,Huddleston S,Robinson HB. The occurrence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in 2478 dental patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1953;6:1134-41. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Baptista ML. Torus palatinus. A frequent clinical observation in the state of Zulia, Cien. Dent Abstr 1958;3:544. [Google Scholar]
  30. Vidic B. Incidence of torus palatinus in Yougoslav skulls. J Dent Res 1966;45:1511-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  31. Schaumann BF,Peagler FD,Gorlin RJ. Minor craniofacial anomalies among a negro population: I. Prevalence of cleft uvula, commissural pits, preauricular pits, torus palatinus, and torus mandibularis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1970;29:566-75. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  32. Tamaki ST,Marzola C,Tamaki T. Incidencia de torus palatinus e mandibularis. Arq Cent Estud Fac Odontol 1971;8:153-64. [Google Scholar]
  33. King DR,Moore GE. An analysis of torus palatinus in a transatlantic study. J Oral Med 1976;31:44-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  34. King DR,King AC. Incidence of tori in three population groups. J Oral Med 1981;36:21-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. Yaacob H,Tirmzi H,Ismail K. The prevalence of oral tori in Malaysians. J Oral Med 1983;38:40-2. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. Chew CL,Tan PH. Torus palatinus. A clinical study. Aust Dent J 1984;29:245-8. [Google Scholar]
  37. Axelsson G,Hedegard B. Torus palatinus in Icelandic schoolchildren. Am J Phys Anthropol 1985;67:105-12. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. Salem G,Holm SA,Fattah R,Basset S,Nasser C. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:150-1. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Reichart PA,Neuhaus F,Sookasem N. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in German and Thai. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988;16:61-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  40. Haugen LK. Palatine and mandibular tori. A morphology study in the current Norwegian population. Acta Odonto Scand 1992;50:65-77. [Google Scholar]
  41. Eggen S,Natvig B,Gasemyr J. Variation in torus palatinus prevalence in Norway. Scand J Dent Res 1994;102:54-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  42. Nair RG,Samaranayake LP,Philipsen HP,Graham RG,Itthagarun A. Prevalence of oral lesions in a selected Vietnamese population. Int Dent J 1996;46:48-51. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  43. Kerdpon D,Sirirungrojying S. A clinical study of oral tori in southern Thailand: prevalence and the relation to parafunctional activity. Eur J Oral Sci 1999;107:9-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  44. Al-Bayaty HF, Murti PR, Matthews R, Gupta PC. An epidemiological study of tori among 667 dental outpatients in Trinidad & Tobago, West Indies. Int Dent J 2001;51:300-4. [Google Scholar]
  45. Apinhasmita W,Jainkittivong A,Swasdisonc S. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in a Thai population. Sci Asia 2002;28:105-11. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  46. Bruce I,Ndanu TA,Addo ME. Epidemiological aspects of oral tori in a Ghanaian community. Int Dent J 2004;5:78-82. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  47. Cagirankaya LB,Kansu O,Hatipoglu MG. Is torus palatinus a feature of a well-developed maxilla ? Clin Anat 2004;17:623-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. Yildiz E,Deniz M,Ceyhan O. Prevalence of torus palatinus in Turkish schoolchildren. Surg Radiol Anat 2005;27:368-71. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  49. Jainkittivong A,Apinhasmita W,Swasdisonc S. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral tori in 1,520 Chulalongkorn University dental school patients. Surg Radiol Anat 2007;29:125-31. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  50. Sisman Y. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis: five cases. J Health Sci 2006;15:198-202. [Google Scholar]
  51. King DR,Moore GE. The prevalence of torus palatinus. J Oral Med 1971;36:113-5. [Google Scholar]
  52. Jorgensen JB. The Eskimo skeleton: contributions to the physical anthropology of the aboriginal Greenlanders. Meddelelser om Grønland 1953;146:154. [Google Scholar]
  53. Moorrees CFA. The dentition as a criterion of race with special reference to the Aleut. J Dent Res 1951;30:815-21. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  54. Witkop CJ Jr, Barros L. Oral and genetic studies of Chileans 1960. I. Oral anomalies. Am J Phys Anthropol 1963;21:15-24. [Google Scholar]
  55. Mayhall JT,Mayhall MF. Torus mandibularis in two northwest territories villages. Am J Phys Anthropol 1971;34:143-8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  56. Alvesalo L,Mayhall JT,Varrela J. Torus mandibularis in 45, X females (Turner syndrome). Am J Phys Anthropol 1996;101:145-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  57. Axelsson G,Hedegard B. Torus mandibularis among Icelanders. Am J Phys Anthropol 1981;54:383-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  58. Bernal Balaez A, Moreira Diaz E, Rodriguez Perez I. Prevalencia de torus palatines y mandibulares en ciudad de la Habana. Rev Cubana Estomatol 1983;20:126-31. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  59. Ohno N,Sakai T,Mizutani T. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in five Asian populations. Aichi Gakun Dent Sci 1988;1:1-8. [Google Scholar]
  60. Karaiskos S,Dimitriou P,Tsironis G,Spyropoulos ND. A clinical and epidemiological study of tori mandibularis. Odontostomatol Proodos 1989;43:443-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  61. Eggen S,Natvig B. Variation in torus mandibularis prevalence in Norway. A statistical analysis using logistic regression. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19:32-5. [Google Scholar]
  62. Ihunwo AO,Phukubye P. The frequency and anatomical features of torus mandibularis in a South African population. J Comp Hum Biol 2006;57:253-62. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  63. Solomon EG. Multiple nodular torus palatinus of the edentulous jaw. A case report. Br Dent J 1973;134:338. [Google Scholar]
  64. Kahn JC,Bourjat P,Barriere PH. Imageries des malformations et déformations mandibulaires. J Radiol 2003;84:975-81. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  65. Levinson H,Herzberg F. A buccaly located torus mandibularis. J South Calif Dent Assoc 1970;38:119-21. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  66. Ellerston CH. Continuous growth of the torus mandibularis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1969;27:786-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  67. Capuzzi P,Stea S. Palatine torus: clinical picture and etiopathology. Dent Cadmos 1990;58:60-4. [Google Scholar]
  68. Ossenberg NS. Mandibular torus. A synthesis of new and previously reported data and a discussion of its cause (pp. 1-52). Cybulsky Editions, National Museum of Canada Ottawa, 1981. [Google Scholar]
  69. Pechenkina EA, Benfer RA Jr. The role of occlusal stress and gingival infection in the formation of exostoses on mandible and maxilla from Neolithic China. Homo 2002;53:112-30. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  70. Sirirungrojying S,Kerpdon D. Relationship between oral tori and temporomandibular disorders. Int Dent J 1999;49:101-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  71. Clifford T, Lamey PJ, Fartash L. Mandibular tori, migraine and temporomandibular disorders. Br Dent J 1996;180: 382-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  72. Halffman CM,Scott GR,Pedersen PO. Palatine torus in the Greenlandic Norse. Am J Phys Anthropol 1992;88:145-61. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  73. Flynn MW,Martinez NP,Meyer CJ. Torus palatinus: report of a case. Am J Dent 1992;5:339-41. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  74. Takasugi Y,Shiba M,Okamoto S. Difficult laryngoscopy caused by massive mandibular tori. J Anesth 2009;23:278-80. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  75. Le Charpentier Y, Auriol MM. Anatomie pathologique des lésions tumorales de la cavité buccale, des glandes salivaires et des maxillaires. Encycl Medic Chir Stomatol 22011 S10, Elsevier Masson, Paris, 1997. [Google Scholar]
  76. Seah YH. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 1995;40:318-21. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  77. Shimahara T,Ariyoshi Y,Nakajima Y,Shimahara M,Kurisu Y,Tsuji M. Mandibular torus with tongue movement disorder: a case report. Bull Osaka Med Col 2007;53:143-6. [Google Scholar]
  78. Dridi S M, Barbey T,Danan M,Wierzba CB. Importance du questionnaire médical en chirurgie buccale et en parodontie. Actual Odontostomatol 1998;201:15-27. [Google Scholar]
  79. Eckles RL,Miller RI. Tori: a common but neglected entity. Gen Dent 1988;36:417-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  80. Pynn BR,Kurys-Kos NS,Walker DA,Mayhall JT. Tori mandibularis: a case report and review of the literature. J Can Dent Assoc 1995;61:1057-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  81. Sellevold BJ. Mandibular torus morphology. Am J Phys Anthropol 1980;53:569-72. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  82. Van Der Waal I. Diseases of the jaws: diagnosis and treatment (pp. 20-2). Text book and atlas. Munksgaard, Copenhague, 1977. [Google Scholar]
  83. Godefroix P. Contribution à l'étude du torus mandibularis, à propos d'un cas clinique. Thèse Chirurgie dentaire, Bordeaux II, 1994. [Google Scholar]
  84. Topozian DS,Mullen FR. Continued growth of a torus palatinus. J Oral Surg 1977;35:845-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  85. Laskaris G. Atlas des maladies buccales, 2ème éd. Flammarion, Paris, 1994. [Google Scholar]
  86. Lee SP,Paik KS,Kim MK. Variations of the prominences of the bony palate and their relationship to complete dentures in Korean skulls. Clin Anat 2001;14:324-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  87. Nortje CJ. General practitioner’s radiology case 72. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis. Saudi Dent J 2009;64:126. [Google Scholar]
  88. Raldi FV,Nascimento RD,Sa-Lima JR,Tsuda CA,Moraes MB. Excision of an atypical case of palatal bone exostosis: a case report. J Oral Sci 2008;50:229-31. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  89. Kawai T,Igarashi Y,Shibata A. A case of exceptionally large tori palatinus. Oral Radiol 2004;20:57-8. [Google Scholar]
  90. Ganz SD. Mandibular tori as source for onlay bone graft augmentation: a surgical procedure. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent 1997;9:973-82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  91. Garcia-Garcia AS,Martinez-Gonzalez JM,Gomez-Font R,Soto-Rivadeneira A,Oviedo-Roldan L. Current status of the torus palatinus and torus mandibularis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15:e353-60. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  92. Kurtzman GM,Silverstein LH,Schatz PC. A technique for surgical mandibular exostosis removal. Compendium Contin Educ Dent 2006;27:540-3. [Google Scholar]
  93. Sergi S. Torus palatinus in the Neanderthal Circeo I skull. Microscopic investigation. Am J Phys Anthropol 1972;36:189-97. [Google Scholar]
  94. Rouas A,Midy D. About a mandibular hyperostosis: the torus mandibularis. Surg Radiol Anat 1997;19:41-3. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  95. Barker D,Walls AWG,Meechan JG. Ridge augmentation using mandibular tori. Br Dent J 2001;190:474-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  96. Perez PB, Romero DG, Lagares DT. Extirpación de un torus palatino con cirugía laser ER:YAG. http://www.csnuevastecnologias.net/pdf/casos/art_2.pdf/ (01/07/11). [Google Scholar]
  97. Reychler H. Pathologie des maxillaires (pp. 1331-433). In: Piette E, Reychler H, Eds. Traité de pathologie buccale et maxillofaciale. De Boek, Bruxelles, 1991. [Google Scholar]
  98. Princ G, Toledo R, Dichamp J. Chirurgie préprothétique. Encyc Méd Chir Stomatol 22320 A10, Elsevier Masson, Paris, 1999. [Google Scholar]
  99. Terry BC,Hildebrand DG,Dennis G. Minor preprosthetic surgical procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:193-216. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  100. Voreaux M, Amans M, Dall’Agnol B. Chirurgie plastique des tissus durs par soustraction. Chir Dent Fr 1990;503:41-4. [Google Scholar]
  101. Wada S,Furuta I. A new retractor for surgical removal of mandibular torus. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg 2005;33:135-6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  102. SalagarayLafargue F. Les « sites » d’anesthésie locale. Actual Odontostomatol 1992;179:433-51. [Google Scholar]
  103. Fragiskos FD. Preprosthetic surgery (pp. 243-79). Oral surgery, Springer, Berlin, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  104. Darshan J. Minor prosthetic surgery (pp. 193-207). In: Dym H, Orrett E, Eds. Atlas of minor surgery. Saunders Co, New York, 2001. [Google Scholar]
  105. Papadopoulos H,Lawhorn T. Use of a palatal flap for torus reduction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;66:1969-70. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  106. Gores RJ. Use of an intraoral bandage instead of sutures after removal of torus palatinus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1968;25:303-7. [Google Scholar]
  107. Goracy ESZ,Rissolo A. Use of a reciprocating saw for the removal of mandibular tori. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993;51:211. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  108. Cosme LP,Amans J,Voreaux M. Indications de la chirurgie préprothétique. Chir Dent Fr 1989;496:45-50. [Google Scholar]
  109. Baudet-Pommel M,Gueroult JM,Mondie JM. Tumeurs du palais : quel diagnostic, quel traitement ? Actual Odontostomatol 1995;189:117-42. [Google Scholar]
  110. Donoff RB. Manuel de chirurgie orale et maxillofaciale. Masson, Paris, 1990. [Google Scholar]
  111. Ghalichebaf M,Bycroft B,Graves R. An unpredictable result from a torus palatinus removal and its treatment: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:397-8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  112. Mantzikos K,Segelnick SL,Schoor J. Hematoma following periodontal surgery with a torus reduction: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:72-80. [Google Scholar]
  113. Vidya B,Pradhan S. Atraumatic laser excision of mandibular tori: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2011;2:47-9. [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.