Open Access

Table I

shows summary of the study groups, number of animals in each group, treatments provided to each group and the main histopathologic observations. Nigella Sativa (NS); Thymoquinone (TQ); (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); 7,12-dimethylbenza [a] anthracene (DMBA).

Group Treatment and Animals' Numbers (N) Histopathologic observations
G I Untreated healthy control. N = 10 Normal thin keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, no rete ridges, and no appendages.
G II DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratinization, signs of severe epithelial dysplasia and fibrotic connective tissue with moderate inflammatory cell infiltrate.
G Aia NS for 2 weeks. N = 10 Similar to control with slight hyperkeratinization.
G Aib NS for 2 weeks then DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and severe dysplasia.
G Aii NS plus DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and moderate dysplasia.
G Aiii NS for 2 weeks then, DMBA plus NS for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and mild dysplasia.
G Aiv DMBA for 6 weeks then, NS for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and mild dysplasia.
G Bia TQ for 2 weeks. N = 10 Similar to control with slight hyperkeratinization.
G Bib TQ alone for 2 weeks then, DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and mild dysplasia.
G Bii TQ plus DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and moderate dysplasia.
G Biv DMBA for 6 weeks then, TQ for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and mild dysplasia.
G Cia EGCG for 2 weeks. N = 10 Similar to control with slight hyperkeratinization.
G Cib EGCG for 2 weeks then, DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and moderate dysplasia.
G Cii EGCG plus DMBA for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia and moderate dysplasia.
G Ciii EGCG for 2 weeks, then DMBA plus EGCG for 6 weeks. N = 10 Epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratinization and mild dysplasia.

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