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Table III

Distribution of risk factors for the displacement of a root in the maxillary sinus to assess whether there is any risk.

Risk factors for displacement of a root in the maxillary sinus

Practitioner-related factors Patient-related factors
– Absence or limited oral surgery skills
– Poor clinical and radiological analysis of the situation: lack of anticipation of potential complications
– Absence or poor-quality imaging: blind avulsion
– Left laterality and absence of adjacent teeth: limited dexterity
– Loss of dental substances (voluminous caries, resorptions) or unfavorable anatomical features (long, thin, hook-shaped, or bell-shaped roots): complex avulsion with a fracture risk
– Proximity to the sinus: + + + palatal roots of molars or premolars
– Significant sinus pneumatization: age-related, progressive edentulous and ethnic (e.g. Asians have less voluminous sinuses)

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