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Table III

Growth factors and platelet concentrates.

Author Groups Study design Results
Kobayashi E et al. [14] A-PRF vs. S-PRF vs. PRP Six participants volunteered for 18 blood samples (three each for A-PRF, S-PRF and PRP). After preparation, samples were assessed for growth factor release at 15 min, 60 min, eight hours, one day, three days, and ten days. ELISA quantified the growth factor release of PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, TGF β1, VEGF, EGF, and IGF. PDGF-AA was shown to be the most abundant growth factor produced from platelet concentrates, followed by PDGF-BB, TGF β1, VEGF, and PDGF-AB. When compared to PRF and A-PRF, PRP produced substantially more growth factors after 15–60 minutes of incubation.
For ten days, however, A-PRF (PDGF-AA, TGF β 1, VEGF, EGF) produced the most overall growth factors. Furthermore, as compared to PRP or PRF, A-PRF produced substantially more total protein after ten days. At all intervals, IGF was greater in the PRF group, while PDGF-BB was highest in the PRP group.
Miron RJ et. al [13] PRP vs. i-PRF PRP and i-PRF were compared for growth factor release prepared from 8 participants. Biocompatibility and migration of fibroblasts were measured after 24 hours, fibroblast proliferation after 1, 3, and 5 days, and PDGF, TGF-β1, and collagen-1 release after 3 and 7 days. After ten days, PRP had a significantly greater total short-term release of growth factors, especially TGF-β1 and VEGF. However, i- PRF had significantly higher total long-term release of EGF, IGF-1, PDGF-AB, PDGF-AA. Besides, both concentrates showed good biocompatibility and increased fibroblast proliferation and migration, with i-PRF inducing substantially more migration and PRP inducing significantly more cellular proliferation. In addition, as compared to PRP, i-PRF had the highest collagen-1 expression at both three and seven days, TGF-β levels at seven days, and PDGF at three days.
Ghanaati et al. [12] S-PRF vs. A-PRF For histological cell detection and histomorphometrical cell distribution assessment, standard platelet-rich fibrin (S-PRF) and advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) were compared. On clots from four separate human donors, immunohistochemistry was conducted for T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes, platelets, and CD34 positive stem cells. In both PRF groups, platelets were seen throughout the clot. On the other hand, the A-PRF group had more platelets at the distal portion, away from the buffy coat (BC). In both groups, T- and B-lymphocytes, monocytes and stem cells were found in the vicinity of the BC. In the A-PRF group, more neutrophilic granulocytes were present in the distal section of the clot. Neutrophils were mainly detected at the red blood cell −BC interface in the S-PRF group.
Arora S et al. [15] PRP vs. S-PRF (Supernatant of PRF) A total of 16 individuals were recruited, eight for PRP and eight for PRF preparation. The levels of PDGF-AB, TGF- β1, VEGF, and platelet counts in baseline whole blood, PRP, and PRF were measured and compared. TGF- β1 release was significantly higher in PRP than in PRF, but there was no statistical difference in PDGF-AB concentration or VEGF release between the two products. When activated PRP was used instead of PRF, VEGF and PDGF-AB significantly increased over baseline whole blood values.
Chatterjee A et al. [16] PRF vs. PRF matrix gel (PRFM) A total of 15 individuals participated in the study. After preparation of PRF and PRFM, the samples were quantified for PDGF, VEGF, EGF, FGF, TGF, and IGF levels for 23 days. Compared to the PRF, PRFM had a better release of growth factors. PRFM had statistically significant difference compared to PRF in terms of PDGF, EGF, FGF, TGF and IGF release. However, PRF had a steady and consistent release of growth factors over the study period.

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