Open Access

Table I

Mechanism of action, dosing intervals and half-lives of biological therapies [59].

Class Target Agent Trade name(s) Indication Dosing interval One half-life (days)
Cytokine inhibitor TNF-α inhibitor Adalimumab Humira, Amjevita, Imraldi, Cyltezo RA, IBD, PsA, PS, AS, JIA 2 weekly 14
    Certolizumab pegol Cimzia RA, IBD, PsA, AS 2 weekly 14
    Etanercept Enbrel, Benepali, Erelzi RA, PsA, PP, JIA, AS Weekly or twice weekly 3
    Golimumab Simponi RA, PsA, IBD 4 weekly 14
    Infliximab Remicade, Remsima, Renflexis, Inflectra RA, IBD, AS, PsA, PP 4, 6, or 8 weekly 9
  IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra Kineret RA Daily 0.25
  IL-6 inhibitor Sarilumab Kevzara RA 2 weekly 10
  IL-6 receptor inhibitor Tocilizumab Roactemra, Actemra RA, JIA IV 4 weekly 11
          SC weekly 13
  IL-12 and IL-23 inhibitor Ustekinumab Stelara IBD, PsA, IBD, Ps 12 weekly 21
  IL-17 inhibitor Ixekizumab Taltz PP, PsA Monthly 13
    Secukinumab Cosentyx Ps, PsA, AS Monthly 27
  IL-23 inhibitor Guselkumab Tremfya PP, PsA 8 weekly 18
  Immune modulator Apremilast Otezla PsA, PP Daily 0.25
  JAK inhibitor Baracitinib Olumiant RA Daily 0.5
    Tofacitinib Xeljanz RA, PsA, AS, JIA, IBD Twice daily 0.33
    Filgotinib Jyseleca RA, IBD Daily 0.29
    Upatacitinib Rinvoq RA, PsA, IBD Daily 0.17
    Abrocitinib Cibinqo AD Daily 0.21
Cell-depleting agent CD20 (peripheral B-cell depletion) Rituximab Mabthera, Rixathon, Truxima, Rituxan NHL, CLL, RA, P, PV Two doses 2 weeks apart every 6 months 18
Co-stimulation blocker CD80 and CD86 (minimises T-cell activation) Abatacept Orencia RA, PsA, JIA IV monthly 14
          SC weekly  

IV = intravenous, SC = subcutaneous, RA = rheumatoid arthritis, IBD = inflammatory bowel disease, PsA = psoriatic arthritis, PP = plaque psoriasis, JIA = juvenile idiopathic arthritis, AS = ankylosing spondylitis, Ps = psoriasis, AD = atopic dermatitis, NHL = non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, CLL = chronic lymphocytic lymphoma, P = polyangiitis, PV = pemphigus vulgaris

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